Apparently, this is the cause:
To be able to boot Wubi, Grub2 has to access the ntfs partition which is hosting Wubi. There is a bug in Grub 2, which prevents Grub2 to read any files on an ntfs partition beyond the first 4GB. If any of the boot files is outside of the 4GB limit, booting will fail. Depending on which boot file is outside the limit, the symptoms can be quite different. Since any kernel or Grub update relocates some of the boot files, you might be hit by this bug at any time.
To fix the problem, go to the link above, download the new
wubildr, and replace the one you have in
C:\of your Windows partition.